This video shows the filament winding process at Ability Composites using their 4 axis filament winding machine. Pre-impregnated carbon fiber being wound onto a 9.5″ diameter steel mandrel.
The fiber is wound on to the mandrel as specified in the layup schedule. Here a 22.5 degree ply is being wound onto the part.
Fiber placement on composite tubes and how it effects laminate strength:
Low angle plies will improve the strength and stiffness along the length of the tube. This is because the plies have the fibers running down the length of the part. The steepest angle that can be filament wound is around 15 degrees, otherwise unidirectional tape can be applied by hand at a 0 degree angle.
45 degree plies will provide great torsion strength.
90 degree plies or hoops as they are often referred to will improve strength of the tube from internal pressures. This also allows the difference often needed in CTE so that the mandrel can be extracted from the carbon fiber tube after it is cured.
Every filament wound part is unique and the laminate can be designed to meet the specific and unique needs it may have.